At Environmental Defence, we perform research and publish reports and guides to educate the public about environmental challenges facing our communities, then provide roadmaps for steps we can take to tackle these challenges. Take a look some of our most recent reports:

Our Reports

Recycling Failure

This report examines plastic packaging to assess if existing rules are on track to achieve Canada's goal of Zero Plastic Waste by 2030 ... Read More

Backgrounder: Report Preview – Roadmap to a Sustainable Financial System in Canada

Co-written by Julie Segal at Environmental Defence, Alan Andrews and Tanya Jemec at EcoJustice and, Adam Scott at Shift:Action, this backgrounder serves as a high ... Read More


Dollar store products, including headphones and children’s toys, contain toxic levels of heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and antimony. Our report reveals up to ... Read More

The Running List of Federal Fossil Fuel Subsidies in 2022

Every year, Canada’s federal government gives billions in direct subsidies, tax breaks and government-backed financial support to the fossil fuel industry. This year, in addition ... Read More


While the provincial government has, on occasion, spoken about the need to fight climate change, it has offered inadequate solutions that it has failed to ... Read More

50 Years of Sprawling Tailings

In 2020, the total tailings area was over 300 km² , which would cover the city of Vancouver over 2.6 times. The tailings "ponds" store ... Read More

Buyer Beware: Fossil Fuel Subsidies and Carbon Capture Fairy Tales in Canada

As climate crisis worsens, Canada's federal government continued to give billions in subsidies and financing for fossil fuels. For 2021, this annual index was able ... Read More

Closing Enbridge’s Line 5 Pipeline: What Are the Options and Alternatives Available?

Enbridge’s Line 5 oil and gas pipeline has been the subject of considerable debate. Opponents want the pipeline shut down due to the risk it ... Read More

Canada’s Big Oil Reality Check

Oil and gas production is Canada’s largest emitting sector as well as its fastest growing source of emissions. The federal government has repeatedly told the ... Read More

Missing the Forest: How Carbon loopholes for logging hinder Canada’s climate leadership

This report finds that Canada underreports 80 million tonnes of emissions from industrial logging, downplaying the logging industry’s devastating toll on the climate and threatening ... Read More

2021 Annual Report

This yearwas one thatwe'll never forget. Climate change, loss of biodiversity, and pollution continued to be in the spotlight. This year also shined a light ... Read More

A Plan For Green Buildings, Jobs and Prosperity for Ontario: Reducing Carbon Emissions from Fossil Gas

Written by Kent Elson, this plan provides a pathway to reduce carbon emissions from fossil gas (aka “natural gas”) in a way that will create ... Read More

What makes a strong climate plan?

The climate emergency is at our doorstep. From unprecedented heat waves in British Columbia, to flooding in Yukon and wildfires raging across the country, it ... Read More

Canada’s State of Climate Action

Canada could be a climate leader but we aren't 9 out of 10 Canadians think we’re climate leaders. But Canada still hasn’t turned its good ... Read More

FAQ: Fossil Fuel Subsidies in Canada

It's been more than 10 years since Canada pledged to end fossil fuel subsidies - and yet public financial supports for the oil and gas ... Read More

Is Canada’s Impact Assessment Act working?

The Impact Assessment Act (IAA) came into force in August 2019, replacing the widely criticized Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, 2012 . Is the IAA meeting ... Read More

Enbridge’s Line 5 – The pipeline’s ongoing environmental risks to the Great Lakes and the climate

Line 5 is a 68-year-old pipeline operated by Enbridge Energy. It carries up to 540,000 barrels-per-day or 23 million gallons of oil and natural gas ... Read More

CAR WARS: EVs versus SUVs and the Battle for a Cleaner Future

Car companies like to make big promises of an electric vehicle (EV) future. Meanwhile, they are working hard to sell millions of highly polluting – ... Read More

Briefing: Net Zero Producers Forum

On April 23, 2021, the United States, Canada, Qatar, Norway, and Saudi Arabia, which jointly account for 40 percent of global oil and gas production, ... Read More

Paving Paradise: The Impact of Highway 413 on Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Air Pollution and Suburban Sprawl

We wanted to get a sense of the impact Highway 413 could have on climate change and air pollution, so we hired a transportation modelling ... Read More

Towards Canada’s Fair Share: New research on achieving a stronger climate target

The modeling being presented here shows Canada can do the hard work required to achieve our fair share of carbon emissions reductions - 60% reductions ... Read More

Paying Polluters: Federal Financial Support For Oil and Gas in 2020

Canada’s federal government provided or announced at least $18 billion in federal support and subsidies for fossil fuel companies in 2020. But that total is ... Read More

Drawing from Despots

This report shows how the tactics employed by the Alberta Government to harass, silence and intimidate critics of the oil industry are similar to those ... Read More

Steady Path: How a transition to a fossil-free Canada is in reach for workers and their communities

This brief investigates the actual state of employment in Canada’s fossil fuel industry. It explains why the clean economy transition is manageable for workers in ... Read More

Our Guides

Reject Teck’s Frontier Mine

The federal government is facing an important test of its resolve on climate action: whether to approve or reject what would be Canada’s largest open-pit ... Read More

Toxic Ten chemicals to avoid in skincare products

From washing your face to applying serum for a youthful complexion, our daily skincare routine may involve using as many as 16 personal care products ... Read More

Our Submissions

Public Transit and the Path to Net Zero: Submission to consultations on permanent public transit funding in Canada

The permanent public transit fund is a historic opportunity to decarbonize the transport sector, while delivering a more inclusive economy and fostering greater social equity ... Read More

Submission to the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: Prioritize and Expedite Bill C-226

Environmental Defence along with other environmental and civil society organizations have come together to advocate for social justice and equity, environmental protection, and public health ... Read More

Submission: Draft Guideline B-15: Climate Risk Management

A group of environmental organizations have come together to provide strategic comments on OSFI’s draft Guideline B-15: Climate Risk Management including assessing opportunities for the ... Read More

Comments RE: Proposed Frame for the Clean Electricity Regulations

As stated in our comments regarding the discussion paper on the Clean Electricity Standard (and included as Appendix 1 here), Environmental Defence welcomes the Government ... Read More

Letter from 113 organizations Re: Ending fossil fuel subsidies and public finance

113 civil society groups signed this letter, which welcomes the commitments made by the Government of Canada to end subsidies and public financing for the ... Read More

Reducing Methane Emissions from Canada’s Oil and Gas Sector: Discussion Paper Recommendations

Environmental Defence, Climate Action Network and welcome the Government of Canada’s commitments to address methane emissions from Canada’s oil and gas sector and the ... Read More

Submission to the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development: Eliminating Fossil Fuel Subsidies

The attached document includes recommendations for the Government of Canada on the elimination of fossil fuel subsidies and public financing, and before end of 2022 ... Read More

Call for action on Climate-Aligned Finance/ Appel à l’action pour un secteur financier aligné sur le climat

Over 85 investment firms, academic organizations, and environmental groups from across Canada and the globe unite to call on the government of Canada for climate-aligned ... Read More

Briefing Note: Supporting Reuse to Get to Zero Plastic Waste

Single-use packaging and products are a key driver of plastic waste and pollution. Supporting systems for reuse is essential to achieving the government’s goal of ... Read More

A Clean Electricity Standard: Discussion Paper Recommendations

Environmental Defence welcomes the Government of Canada’s commitments to ensure Canada’s electricity grid is 90% non-emitting by 2030 as well as to achieve a net-zero ... Read More

Submission on Technical Issues Paper: Recycled Content for Certain Plastic Manufactured Items Regulations

A regulatory package on recycled content could contribute to the government’s goal of eliminating plastic pollution by 2030. But there is also a risk that ... Read More

Backgrounder: A cap on emissions from the oil and gas sector

Over the course of 2022, Canada will develop what could be our most impactful climate policy ever: a cap on oil and gas greenhouse gas ... Read More

Submission on Single-Use Plastics Prohibition Regulations

Single-use plastics are extremely problematic in that they are mostly not recycled or reused, can contain toxic additives, and pose a very long-term threat to ... Read More

Joint Submission From Environmental Groups on EA Requirements for “Advanced Recycling” Facilities

We oppose the proposal to reduce environmental assessment requirements for any thermal treatment or waste management facilities. We also oppose any move to reclassify projects ... Read More

Backgrounder: Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Investment Tax Credit

Carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) refers to technologies that are designed to collect or “capture” carbon dioxide generated by high-emitting activities (such as oil ... Read More

Response to CSA Notice: Proposed National Instrument 51-107 Disclosure of Climate-related Matters

Canadian capital markets require transparent, consistent, and comparable information on climate change to inform investment decisions. Canada must catch up to international best practices on ... Read More

Submission related to principles guiding the elaboration of oil and gas emission caps

Under the current global fossil fuel production trajectory, Canada will miss the goals set in the Paris Agreement. Canada’s proposed oil and gas emissions caps ... Read More

Submission on the Draft Technical Guide Related to the Strategic Assessment of Climate Change

By signing the Paris Agreement, Canada made a commitment to do its fair share to limit global temperature rise to 1.5°C. So far, Canada is ... Read More